I have been doing some reading on this topic, especially as to how it compares to evidence-based medicine. Here are some articles that I found particularly helpful."
Luce, BR. EBM, HTA, and CER: clearing the confusion. Milbank Quarterly, 2010, vol. 88 no. 2, pp. 256-76
Tanenbaum, SJ. Comparative effectiveness research: evidence-based medicine meets health care reform in the USA. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 2009, v.15, pp.976-84.
Defining evidence-based medicine and comparative research. http://www.npcnow.org/Public/
Sox, HC. Comparative effectiveness research: a report from the
Institute of Medicine. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2009, v.151, #3,
(Sox seems to be a leader in this area)
Sox, HC. Comparative effectiveness research: challenges for medical
journals. Trials, 2010, v.11, p.45
full text available at http://www.trialsjournal.com/
NLM resources for informing comparative effectiveness research. NLM
Technical Bulletin, April 21 2010, no. 373.
Rich, EC. The policy debate over public investment in comparative
effectiveness research. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2009,
v.24 #6, pp. 752-7.
available full text online